dimanche 26 juin 2011

Radioactivité due aux rayonnements


Analyse graphique de la radioactivité
Durée d'acquisition : 5 minutes
Lieu de la mesure : dans le milieu ambiant du logement
Appareil de mesure : Geiger Müller   Jeulin

Effets biologiques d’une exposition

Le transfert d’énergie des rayonnements ionisants à la matière vivante est responsable des effets biologiques de ces rayonnements. Cette ionisation affecte les cellules des tissus ou des organes exposés, de sorte que les processus biologiques des cellules sont perturbés. Cela peut conduire à :
 l’ionisation des molécules (radiolyse), modifiant leurs propriétés chimiques. Les constituants chimiques de la cellule vivante ne peuvent plus alors jouer leur rôle.
 l’altération de l’ADN, qui a un rôle de « chef d’orchestre » dans la vie cellulaire.
Ces lésions de l’ADN sont de plusieurs types, essentiellement des ruptures simple brin et double brins. 


Altérations possibles de l’ADN consécutives à une exposition à des rayonnements ionisants

Un système de réparation enzymatique dans la cellule permet de réparer rapidement les lésions de premier type (ruptures simples brins). Dans les autres cas, la réparation peut être incomplète.
( source : INRS )



Désintégration
Données


    t            A
    s           c/s
 0:00:00 2,000
 0:00:00 1,000
 0:00:01 2,000
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